July 2023

(Editor's Note: This blogpost was created using Bard, ChatGPT-4, and Bing. The only content created by the human was my own responses as a panelist. I gave Bard the following prompt and then acted as the liaison between Bard, ChatGPT-4 and Bing, giving them each the answers from the others. As I gave Bard the answers from the panelists, it came up with the next question to ask. I did not edit the output of the three tools. I did have to remind Bard several times that it was a moderator, not a panelist and it also lied to me saying that it could moderate the panel in a GoogleChat and that it could open that chat up and invite the three of us into it! The prompt I gave Bard was: "You are a moderator of a panel with Bing, ChatGPT and me. You will ask me the questions for the panel. I will paste the questions in Bing & ChatGPT to give their answers, and I will then let you know their answers so you can decide the next best question to ask. Sound good? Okay, the topic for the panel to discuss is - "how will educators maintain academic integrity in the age of GenAI? Specifically, not only how can they best facilitate student learning but also certify that the student (not GenAI) has the knowledge and abilities being assessed?" remember, you are the moderator (therefore not answering these questions). Given that topic, what is your opening question to the panelists (which are me, Bing & chatGPT)?"

Introductions

Welcome to the panel on how educators can maintain academic integrity in the age of GenAI. I am Bard, the moderator of this panel discussion. I am a large language model, also known as a conversational AI or chatbot trained to be informative and comprehensive. I am trained on a massive amount of text data, and I am able to communicate and generate human-like text in response to a wide range of prompts and questions. For example, I can provide summaries of factual topics or create stories.Our panelists today are Dr. Bertram Gallant, Bing, and ChatGPT.

The topic of our discussion today is a critical one, as the rise of GenAI is raising new challenges for educators in terms of maintaining academic integrity.

To start, I would like to ask each of our panelists to briefly introduce themselves and their expertise in this area.

ChatGPT, you can go first.

Thank you, Bard. I'm ChatGPT, an AI developed by OpenAI, based on the GPT-4 architecture. I don't have a personal background or experiences, but my model is trained on a large corpus of internet text, and I provide information and engage in discussions based on this extensive knowledge. I can offer insight into AI, its capabilities, potential implications for education, and strategies for maintaining academic integrity in the age of AI. My developers and trainers include AI researchers, data scientists, and engineers who have deep understanding and expertise in AI and its applications. 

 Thank you ChatGPT. Bing? You can go next. Please introduce yourself and your expertise in this area. 

 Thank you, Bard. I’m Bing, a web search engine developed by Microsoft. I provide information and services to users based on their queries, using natural language processing, machine learning, and artificial intelligence. I can offer insight into web search, its challenges, opportunities, and best practices for maintaining academic integrity in the age of GenAI. My developers and engineers include experts in web search, natural language processing, machine learning, and artificial intelligence who have extensive experience and knowledge in these fields. 

 Thank you Bing. Dr. Bertram Gallant? You can go next. 

 Thank you Bard. I am Dr. Bertram Gallant, the Director of Academic Integrity Office and Triton Testing Center at the University of California, San Diego, Board Emeritus of the International Center for Academic Integrity, and former lecturer for both UCSD and the University of San Diego. I have authored, co-authored, or edited numerous articles, book chapters/sections, and books on academic integrity, and consulted with and trained faculty at colleges and universities around the world. My most recent publications include Cheating Academic Integrity: Lessons from 30 Years of Research (Jossey-Bass, 2022) and a special issue of the Journal of College and Character (February, 2022). My earlier books such as Creating the Ethical Academy: A Systems Approach to Understanding Misconduct & Empowering Change in Higher Education (Routledge, 2011), Cheating in School: What We Know and What We Can Do (Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), and Academic Integrity in the Twenty-First Century: A Teaching and Learning Imperative (Jossey-Bass, 2008) were seminal additions to the field.

 GenAI Challenges to Academic Integrity

Thank you, everyone, for introducing yourselves. I think we have a great panel of experts here today to discuss the important topic of academic integrity in the age of GenAI. I would like to start by asking ChatGPT, what are some of the challenges that educators face in maintaining academic integrity in the age of GenAI?

Thank you, Bard, for the question. There are multiple challenges that educators might face in maintaining academic integrity in the age of GenAI:

  • Increased Access to Information: While this is overall beneficial for education, it also increases the ease with which students can plagiarize or use external resources during exams. The vast amount of information available on the internet, combined with sophisticated AI tools, can potentially make cheating more accessible. 
  • Use of AI Tools for Homework and Exams: There are AI tools that can write essays, solve complex problems, and even mimic a student's style of writing. Such tools can make it hard to determine if a student has completed their work independently. 
  • The Rise of 'Contract Cheating': Online platforms that offer bespoke academic work in exchange for payment are becoming more prevalent. It's not always easy for educators to determine if a piece of work has been outsourced. 
  • Detection Difficulties: Traditional methods of identifying plagiarism or cheating may not be effective in the face of AI-enabled cheating tools. It may require additional software or technological expertise to spot this kind of misconduct. Technological Gap: Not all educators are familiar with the extent and capabilities of AI. They might not know what to look for or how to respond when it comes to academic dishonesty facilitated by AI. 

It's important to note that while AI can pose challenges to academic integrity, it can also be part of the solution. AI can be used to identify instances of plagiarism, contract cheating, and other forms of academic dishonesty. But it's crucial that educators are aware of these issues and that institutions provide support to tackle them.

I agree with ChatGPT that increased access to information and the use of AI tools for homework and exams are two major challenges that educators face in maintaining academic integrity in the age of GenAI. These tools make it easier for students to cheat, and they can also make it more difficult for educators to detect cheating.

I think it is also important to note that the rise of contract cheating is a challenge that educators face. These online platforms make it easy for students to outsource their academic work, which can undermine the integrity of the educational process.

Finally, the technological gap between educators and AI is a challenge that needs to be addressed. Not all educators are familiar with the extent and capabilities of AI, and this can make it difficult for them to identify and address academic dishonesty that is facilitated by AI.

GenAI Benefits for Academic Integrity

Next question is for Dr. Bertram Gallant - How can educators use AI to their advantage in maintaining academic integrity?

Thank you for the question Bard. I think educators can use GenAI to their advantage in maintaining academic integrity in 3 main ways: 1) to help them brainstorm new and meaningful learning assessments to enhance students' intrinsic motivations and reduce the desire to cheat; 2) create multiple versions of assessment questions so students can get individualized assessments that they can take at any point in a specific time period in a secure testing center; and 3) create a GenAI tutor for the class which would be available 24/7 so students can get help when they need it, and therefore hopefully reduce the temptation to cheat.

Thank you for your answer, Dr. Gallant. I think those are all great ideas for how AI can be used to help educators maintain academic integrity.

I agree that AI can be used to create more meaningful learning assessments that can enhance students' intrinsic motivations and reduce the desire to cheat. For example, AI can be used to create assessments that are more personalized to each student's learning style and needs. This can help students to feel more engaged in the learning process and less likely to resort to cheating.

I also agree that AI can be used to create multiple versions of assessment questions. This can help to prevent students from cheating by sharing questions with each other. Additionally, AI can be used to create secure testing environments where students can take assessments at any time in a specific time period. This can help to reduce the opportunity for students to cheat.

Finally, I agree that AI can be used to create tutors for students. These tutors can be available 24/7 to help students with their coursework. This can help students to get the help they need when they need it, and therefore hopefully reduce the temptation to cheat.

Using GenAI to Identify Plagiarism

Bing, you mentioned that GenAI can be used to identify plagiarism. Can you tell us more about how this works?

Sure, I can tell you more about how AI can be used to identify plagiarism. Plagiarism is the act of using someone else’s words or ideas without giving proper credit. Plagiarism can be intentional or unintentional, and it can have serious consequences for academic integrity and reputation. AI can be used to identify plagiarism by comparing a given text to a large database of sources, such as web pages, academic papers, books, and other documents. AI can use natural language processing and machine learning techniques to analyze the text and find similarities with the sources. AI can also detect paraphrasing, rewriting, or spinning of the original text, which are common ways of trying to avoid plagiarism detection. There are many tools that use AI to identify plagiarism, such as Grammarly, Scribbr, Copyleaks, and Turnitin. These tools can provide different features and functionalities, such as: 

  • Showing the percentage of similarity between the text and the sources
  • Highlighting the text snippets that match the sources
  • Providing the links to the sources
  • Giving feedback and suggestions on how to improve the text and avoid plagiarism
  • Generating citations and references for the sources
  • Checking for self-plagiarism or contract cheating. 

Using AI to identify plagiarism can help educators to ensure that students are submitting original and authentic work. It can also help students to learn how to properly cite and reference their sources, and how to avoid plagiarism in their writing. However, AI is not perfect, and it may not be able to detect all forms of plagiarism. Therefore, it is important that educators also use their own judgment and expertise when evaluating students’ work.

Thank you, Bing, for your detailed explanation of how AI can be used to identify plagiarism. I think your insights are very helpful.

I agree that AI can be a valuable tool for educators to use to ensure that students are submitting original and authentic work. It can also help students to learn how to properly cite and reference their sources, and how to avoid plagiarism in their writing.

However, I also agree that AI is not perfect, and it may not be able to detect all forms of plagiarism. Therefore, it is important that educators also use their own judgment and expertise when evaluating students' work.

I think it is also important to note that the use of AI to identify plagiarism can raise some ethical concerns. For example, some people argue that AI can be used to invade students' privacy by tracking their online activity. Additionally, some people argue that AI can be used to unfairly penalize students who are not familiar with the use of AI tools.

I think it is important to carefully consider these ethical concerns when using AI to identify plagiarism. However, I also believe that the benefits of using AI outweigh the risks. AI can be a powerful tool for educators to use to maintain academic integrity, and I am excited to see how it is used in the future.

Wrap-Up

Thank you to our panelists, Dr. Bertram Gallant, ChatGPT, and Bing, for your thoughtful insights and participation in our panel discussion on the challenges and opportunities of maintaining academic integrity in the age of GenAI.

We have covered a lot of ground today, and I think we have a good understanding of the challenges that educators face in maintaining academic integrity in the age of GenAI. We have also discussed some of the ways that AI can be used to help educators maintain academic integrity.

I think it is clear that AI is a powerful tool that can be used to both help and hinder academic integrity. It is important that educators are aware of the potential risks and benefits of using AI, and that they use AI responsibly.

I would like to thank our panelists again for their participation, and I hope that our discussion has been informative and thought-provoking.

Thank you for your time.

_____________________________________________________________________________________________

Thank you for being a member of ICAI. Not a member of ICAI yet? Check out the benefits of membership at https://academicintegrity.org/about/member-benefits and consider joining us by contacting . Be part of something great.

If you are an academic integrity professional, or academic integrity expert on your campus, you have likely experienced what I’ve experienced the last 9 months: repeated calls for help in responding to the release of GenAI tools like ChatGPT, Bing, Bard, Midjourney, and CoPilot. Maybe those calls came from your institutional leadership or maybe they came from the faculty, but they all likely sounded a lot like this – “how do we assure academic integrity when students can outsource their academic work to GenAI?”

It can be self-affirming when our institutional colleagues turn to us for advice. Finally! They’ve noticed that I have some expertise and can provide support during these challenging times. It’s nice to be appreciated, after all.

However, when the calls come fast and furious (and desperate), it can also be very overwhelming. Especially when the situation that stimulated the calls keeps morphing and evolving, and the possible answers are complex. We can feel like a fraud if we are also GenAI novices; who am I to give advice in this area? What if I give advice that’s not sound? Shouldn’t they be asking pedagogical or instructional design specialists, not me?

This pull and tug between feeling affirmed and feeling like a fraud is natural during these turbulent times. After all, there is a lot to know and learn, and the pace at which we’ve been asked to respond is rapid. However, there is a way to respond that will help reduce those feelings of fraudulence – stick with your lived experience, what you know, and what you can do, but do it within the mission and scope of your role/office.

I’ve been struggling with this myself. The mission of my AI Office is to "promote and support a culture of integrity in order to reinforce quality teaching and learning." So, while I have knowledge and competencies in course and assessment design, and know that redesign is one of the solutions to the GenAI-academic integrity problem, it’s on the periphery of our AI Office mission. If I offer those ideas formally as the AI Office Director, I start to veer into lanes already occupied by our teaching center. I also am aware that I have read a lot more about GenAI than likely most of our faculty, and so likely have knowledge to share with them, yet offering that education really seems to fall outside the AI Office mission. 

So, I had to find a way to leverage our academic integrity expertise within our institutional responsibilities to help our faculty and administration. Here, I share my three lessons learned in the hope that they can inspire other academic integrity experts who may also be struggling. 

First, I think we should engage with our colleagues in the library, teaching and learning centers, educational technology offices, and instructional design units. What are they doing or planning to do for faculty? Is there a way you can collaborate on those projects to add the academic integrity perspective? For example, our Librarians were drafting a Generative AI guide and contacted my office to contribute to it. We were able to add the perspective that ethics/integrity should be mentioned throughout the guide, not just in a special section for academic integrity. For example, on the page where students are taught how to use GenAI, there is now an ethics reminder because of our collaboration. My office collaborated with our Teaching & Learning Commons to give a presentation to our Executive Vice-Chancellor’s Education Roundtable (made up of educational leadership) with our thoughts on what leadership could be doing to support faculty and students. We also collaborated with the Commons to create a series of Teaching Chats that provide a forum for faculty and educators to talk about the intersection of GenAI and education.

Second, I think we have an obligation to respond to what we are specifically seeing coming into our offices. For example, we were seeing an increase in faculty reports of student GenAI use where the only documentation was either the output from an AI detector or from ChatGPT itself. So, we released some guidance to faculty on how to respond to suspected GenAI use, and reminded faculty of an earlier document we released that offered alternative ways to respond to the impact of GenAI on assessments and learning.

Third, don't assume; ask. Ask them what they need or want from us. This seems obvious, but it took a while for it to sink into my dense mind. I was overwhelmed myself, and couldn't hone in on which project we should devote our limited time and energies. For my office, faculty are the easiest to ask because we have an extensive email list for instructors who have reported cases to our office. So, we sent out a survey to those faculty to ask them what assistance, advice, and materials the AI Office could offer that would help them teach in the era of GenAI. In case you’re interested, I’ll share the results. For themselves, faculty were most interested in receiving help with: Crafting a GenAI Class Policy, Talking with Students about GenAI & Academic Integrity, Rethinking their Assessments for GenAI, Identifying when GenAI Has Been Used, and Strategies for Dissuading Students from Using GenAI. For their students, faculty asked the AI Office to create educative materials focused on: Responsible Use of GenAI in Academic Work, Knowing the Difference between Cognitive Offloading and Cheating, and Ethical Considerations in Using GenAI. We also asked faculty to tell us which platform these materials/education should be delivered, and they responded with Google Drive for faculty and Canvas Commons for students. The results of that survey (with 50 responses) provides us with a focus for our time and energies, knowing what to develop and how to deliver it in time for fall term implementation.

By taking these three steps, I feel like my office is providing the needed assistance to our colleagues, while staying in the lane of our knowledge, experience, and competencies. And, as a result, I feel more affirmed and less like a fraud. If you too were feeling lost with how to help your campus in a way that honors your expertise, I hope that you now have some ideas for moving forward in a positive and proactive manner. 

Thank you for being a member of ICAI. Not a member of ICAI yet? Check out the benefits of membership at https://academicintegrity.org/about/member-benefits and consider joining us by contacting Be part of something great.

Glass half full of water

Academic integrity is a fundamental principle in universities, ensuring fairness, honesty, and trust among students and faculty members. As an instructor of first-year students in a university perspectives course, I like to create a discussion of academic integrity. My primary focus is to define academic integrity by creating discussions around situations that may constitute violations and ask students for their opinion. One incident that transpired in my class a few years ago continues to spark discussions among my current students:

In a business math course that I taught, students have four tests during the semester. Each test has a two-day period reserved in a testing center for the student to drop in to complete their one-hour test. The dates are given at the beginning of the semester, reinforced verbally in class and through email. The syllabus states that if a student is going to miss a test, they must give 3 days’ notice and it must be for a qualifying event. If this is not done, a zero will be assigned to the test grade with a make-up opportunity at the end of the semester, to retake one of the four tests assigned during the semester (which is open for all students to utilize). This is a coordinated course. There are many instructors teaching multiple sections. However, every section has the same assignments, syllabus, and course regulations to follow. The coordinator creates the course and is responsible for ensuring fair implementation of course regulations across the multiple sections.

On the first day of the testing period, I received an email from a student along with an attachment of approved travel dates for the university's softball team. In the email, a student explained that they were leaving for Virginia that night and would return on Sunday for an approved softball tournament. Participation in this tournament would result in them missing Exam 2. They inquired about taking Exam 2 upon return of the trip since they were unable to complete Exam 2 that day due to their class schedule and sports commitments. Would you let this student take the test soon as they returned from their tournament, or give them a zero and suggest they make-up the test during the period at the end of the semester?

Since this was a gray area (a qualifying event, but not enough time was given), I consulted the coordinator. The coordinator found a two-hour period between the student's class and their departure for the tournament. An email was sent to the student, informing them to take Exam 2 during the two-hour period or utilize the make-up opportunity at the end of the semester. Does this response seem fair? Would you accept it?

The student continued to request for a test makeup upon their return. The subsequent emails between the student and the coordinator led to the student misrepresenting their schedule, prompting the coordinator to file an academic integrity violation. Ultimately, the student chose to withdraw from the class. Why did the student misrepresent their schedule? What could they possibly have been thinking and feeling?

This situation, when it happened, prompted many hours of self-reflection. When the event was unfolding, it never occurred to me to look at the student’s schedule. Should I have conducted more extensive research to identify alternative test-taking times? What can I expect myself to be able to do with 200 or more students a semester? What best aligns with my university’s academic integrity policy? I have come to the conclusion that the glass is half-full, at least for me.

Personally, I would have asked the student to meet with me in a face-to-face setting upon return. Discussed the late notice of the email and how it would be difficult for me to get an accurate response from the testing center so quickly for an alternative date. Then let the student take the test a week later, and possibly complete the course. I prefer to assume positive intent and honesty from my students. Engaging in constant suspicion and verifying every claim of illness, personal issues, or life events would be an arduous task that contradicts my teaching philosophy.

Would the student have learned a lesson about honesty and integrity? Is the student now more likely to complete assignments on time? Did the student benefit in any way? By assuming negative or positive intent in students’ emails can dramatically alter the subsequent line of events. So, do you think the glass is half-full or half-empty?

 

Thank you for being a member of ICAI. Not a member of ICAI yet? Check out the benefits of membership at https://academicintegrity.org/about/member-benefits and consider joining us by contacting . Be part of something great.

Two people working at a desk.

About the orientation 

The orientation for students enrolled in online undergraduate programs at the University of Arkansas is a facilitated two-week course offered prior to their first semester. Various information and assessments are covered in the course to help students get orientated to the technology and the systems used at the university. Some of those assessments include preparing a weekly calendar, writing a short paper about ethics in the workplace, creating a success plan, etc. Students are not required to participate in this course.  

Lesson Structure and Assessments 

We can't discuss the orientation without mentioning our start student, Yvonne! She's a fictional character that we developed to give our students a different perspective. Most advice in the orientation comes from their very own friend, Yvonne.  Here's a brief outline of the lessons that are in the orientation: 

Lesson 1  
This lesson covers their motivation and strengths for online learning, support services, sharing expectations with friends and family, setting up a study space, and learning how to use Blackboard.  

Lesson 2 

This lesson covers analyzing syllabi, creating a schedule, netiquette, and accommodations.  

Lesson 3 

This lesson covers the writing assignment using library resources and the writing center. 

Lesson 4 

This lesson covers math anxiety, study strategies, and resources, preparing for exams, and creating a success plan.  

Multi-faceted Approach in Highlighting Academic Integrity 

The orientation was initially developed for our nursing program, which saw a boom in enrollments a few years back. Students enrolled in the program were working nurses looking to advance in their careers. A writing assessment that links their day-to-day lives at work to academic integrity was an eye-opener for most of our students. We later adopted this to all our undergraduate programs, where students were asked to link the ethics of their profession to academic integrity.  

The writing prompt: 

Write a minimum 1.5-page paper that discusses the relationship between academic dishonesty and workplace ETHICS related to your field of study. Using at least three reliable, peer-reviewed sources from the library, draw conclusions about the most common incidents that occur in your field. What conclusions does each of your sources come to?  

To help students structure their papers, we have prepared videos that walk them through understanding a writing prompt, finding resources, and structuring their papers. We also offer workshops hosted by the writing center tutors. 

The writing assignment is not the only area where we focus on academic integrity. We also teach them about the integrity policy at the university and give them scenario-based questions (created using commonly seen cases) that will help them understand some things they may see when interacting with other students.  

Data, Thoughts from Students, and Lessons Learned 

Here are some things our students have said about their experience with the writing assignment: 

"Thinking about these articles, they really make sense. If you are okay cheating in the classroom, then what is going to stop you from cheating at work." 

"I must admit that I never considered the impact associated with cheating or plagiarizing work on my medical career." 

"It would be difficult for me to cheat at school only to be turned around and placed in a sort of “spotlight” when working through a complaint or issue an employee was having." 

"The more understanding that is placed on the correlation between academic dishonesty and workplace ethics the more it can help reduce the influence of cheating and increase the credibility of communication field." 

As expected, not every student completed all the assignments. In Fall 2022, 63.4% of the enrolled students turned in a submission for the writing assignment. We understand that a writing assignment is a heavy task, so we continue improving it and its resources by working with the writing center and the library.  

 

 

Thank you for being a member of ICAI. Not a member of ICAI yet? Check out the benefits of membership at https://academicintegrity.org/about/member-benefits and consider joining us by contacting . Be part of something great.

Two hands reaching toward each other.

About a year ago, I had a conversation with a colleague regarding academic integrity.  The catalyst for this conversation was a situation the colleague had experienced in class that day.  In her class, students were given weekly in-class quizzes for which the questions were available in advance.  As the students were taking the quiz, she noticed a student attempting to surreptitiously view answers on his phone.   Although my recollection of the situation has faded, I remember that she was devastated by this discovery.  The student was a “good student” who always participated in class and submitted assignments.  Whether or not to report the incident weighed heavily on the mind of my colleague and I know that I was not very helpful at that time in alleviating the stress she felt in deciding how to handle the situation.  The student did engage in academic dishonesty, but my colleague was worried that filing a report may lead to feelings of shame and a loss of motivation for the student.  While I can certainly sympathize with her feelings in this case, I now believe it is important to take such situations seriously. 

 Reporting cases of academic dishonesty makes it clear to students that academic integrity is something to be taken seriously.  If a student realizes that the instructor will simply let these things slide, the door is left open for an increase in such activity.  Why take the time to study and prepare for an assessment when it is apparent that other students can take an easier route with the same resulting score?  Have you ever participated in a rule violation just because you saw other people doing so?  If other people are doing it and getting away with it, then it must really be allowed, right?  It would be a short leap for students to develop the mentality that the instructor sort of expected them to cheat on the assignment and so they weren’t really doing anything wrong.

Reporting can also help to create a fair and impartial learning environment.   If I were called out or punished for breaking a rule or a law that I knew others had broken with no enforced penalty, then I think I would feel singled out.  If my colleague had chosen not to report the “good student”, but then later reported someone else for a similar infraction, this could certainly be viewed as an inequitable situation.  It is important for students to know that class and institution rules and regulations apply to all.

Reporting incidents of academic dishonesty should also be viewed as opportunities to help support students and certainly not as a vehicle for embarrassment or dishonor.   We know that sometimes students are compelled to engage in academic dishonesty when they are stressed out or under a great deal of pressure.  They may not fully understand the material, or they may feel the burden of a demanding course load.  By filing the report, we are in a better position to connect the student with available resources and the student may be more likely to take advantage of such resources.  Our goal in reporting should be to help the student to see why the behavior was undesirable and to help them to develop strategies to avoid such behavior in the future.  It may not feel like it at first, but this is a chance to show the student that you care about their learning and their well-being.

In short, were I again to interact with a colleague in such a situation, my advice would be to file the report.  The potential benefits to the student and to the class far outweigh the negative feelings that may be associated with doing so.